The formula developed for the Construction Carbon Calculator and the basis of data presented on this web site were derived from the following sources:

  • Nix, Steve. Measuring and Understanding Wood Volumes, N.D., Accessed April 17, 2007. <>
  • Amthor, J. S., and M. A. Huston. 1998. Terrestrial Ecosystem Responses to Global Change: A Research Strategy; MA ORNL/TM-1998/27, U S Department of Energy, Oak Ridge, TN.
  • Derner, J. D., T. W. Boutton, and D. D. Briske. 2006. Grazing and Ecosystem Carbon Storage in the North American Great Plains. Plant and Soil 280:77-90.
  • Franzluebbers, A. J., and M. A. Arshad. 1997. Soil microbial biomass and mineralizable carbon of water-stable aggregates. Soil Science Society of America Journal 61:1090-1097.
  • Golubiewskia, N. E. 2006. Urbanization increases grassland carbon pools: Effects of landscaping in Colorado's Front Range. Ecological Applications 16:555-571.
  • Guo, Y., R. Amundson, P. Gong, and Q. Yu. 2006. Quantity and spatial variability of soil carbon in the conterminous United States. Soil Science Society of America Journal 70:590-600.
  • Hammond, G. and C. Jones. 2006. Inventory of Carbon & Energy (ICE) Version1.5 Beta, Department of Mechanical Engineering. University of Bath, UK
  • Isenhart, T. M., C. A. Cambardella, K. E. Schilling, P. Drobney, and R. C. Schultz. 2002. Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge Carbon Sequestration Project. Iowa Department of Natural Resources.
  • Kollmuss, A. and Bowell, B., Tufts Climate Initiative. Voluntary Offsets For Air-Travel Carbon Emissions. January, 2007. Accessed April 17, 2007. <>
  • Lawrence, L., J. Green and S.J. Lee. 2006. Carbon Footprint of Construction Capstone Project. University of Washington Program on the Environment.
  • MacMath, R. and P. Fisk III. 1999. Carbon Dioxide Intensity Ratios: A Method of Evaluating the Upstream Global Warming Impact of Long-Life Building Materials. Center for Maximum Potential Building Systems; Austin, TX.
  • MacMath, R. and P. Fisk III. 1999. Life Cycle Balancing: Building Shell, Interiors, & Furnishings Sub-Systems: Nursing and Biomedical Sciences Building. The University of Texas at Houston Health Sciences Center
  • Pouyat, R., P. Groffman, I. Yesilonis, and L. Hernandez. 2002. Soil carbon pools and fluxes in urban ecosystems. Environmental Pollution 116:107-118.
  • Pouyat, R. V., I. D. Yesilonis, and D. J. Nowak. 2006. Carbon Storage by Urban Soils in the United States. Journal of Environmental Quality 35:1566-1575.
  • Prichard, S. J., D. L. Peterson, and R. D. Hammer. 2000. Carbon Distribution in Subalpine Forests and Meadows of the Olympic Mountains, Washington. Soil Science Society of America Journal 64:1834-1845.
  • Reade Advanced Materials. Weight Per Cubic Foot and Specific Gravity. N.D., Accessed April 17, 2007. <>
  • Rice, C. W., G. L. Doyle, and R. Kocyigit. 1999. Belowground Carbon Allocation and Cycling in Tallgrass Prairie and Wheat Ecosystems. National Institute for Global Environmental Change.
  • Weight of various types of wood. N.D., Accessed April 17, 2007. <>
  • Trexler Climate + Energy Services, Inc. A Consumer's Guide to Retail Carbon Offset Providers. Clean Air-Cool Planet. December 2006. Accessed April 17, 2007. <>
  • United Nations Environment Programme. Buildings and Climate Change: Status, Challenges and Opportunities. 2007. Accessed April 17, 2007. ISBN: 978-92-807-2795-1 <>

top of page